Raspberry Pi Model B vs Raspberry Pi 2 Model B

I have just received a new RPi 2 Model B. Yesterday I prepared a microSD card copying the three partitions of another SD card with Raspbian installed. The method was as follows:

– Partition the new microSD card with fdisk, same size except the last partition (swap) that was slightly smaller in the microSD.

– From my home computer, dd from original partition to final one:

# dd if=/dev/mmcblk0p1 of=/dev/sdb1 bs=4096
# dd if=/dev/mmcblk0p2 of=/dev/sdb2 bs=4096
# dd if=/dev/mmcblk0p3 of=/dev/sdb3 bs=4096

Raspbian was updated just before migrating the SD, so it has the last kernel and bootloader updates.  uname -a reports:

Linux parpuja 3.18.5-v7+ #225 SMP PREEMPT Fri Jan 30 18:53:55 GMT 2015 armv7l GNU/Linux

Raspberry Pi 2 boots without any issue, faster than the previous model, as was expected.

Some pictures of the two models:

IMG_20150210_123821IMG_20150210_123856

The only problem was the case. Since the new model has four USB slots instead of two, it does not fit into my homemade Video8 case.

I have some benchmarks made to compare the two models. I found some precompiled benchmarks for RPi ARM A6 here (thanks Roy Longbottom): http://www.roylongbottom.org.uk/Raspberry%20Pi%20Benchmarks.htm

Compiling the benchmarks from source code is not trivial because they include some assembler code for x86. Roy has source code adapted for ARM in his page.

The benchmarks are:

  • busspeed
  • dhrystone
  • linkpack
  • liverloops
  • memspeed
  • whetstone

The two models compared are:

Raspberry Pi B 2011.12 512MB Raspberry Pi 2 Model B V1.1 2014

Benchmarks

 ########################################################

 Linpack Double Precision Unrolled Benchmark n @ 100
 Optimisation Opt 3 32 Bit, Thu Feb  5 11:17:03 2015

 Speed      41.37 MFLOPS

 Numeric results were as expected

 ########################################################
 ########################################################

 Linpack Double Precision Unrolled Benchmark n @ 100
 Optimisation Opt 3 32 Bit, Tue Feb 10 12:54:23 2015

 Speed     119.02 MFLOPS

 Numeric results were as expected

 ########################################################
SYSTEM INFORMATION

From File /proc/cpuinfo
processor	: 0
model name	: ARMv7 Processor rev 5 (v7l)
BogoMIPS	: 57.60
Features	: half thumb fastmult vfp edsp neon vfpv3 tls vfpv4 idiva idivt vfpd32 lpae evtstrm 
CPU implementer	: 0x41
CPU architecture: 7
CPU variant	: 0x0
CPU part	: 0xc07
CPU revision	: 5

processor	: 1
model name	: ARMv7 Processor rev 5 (v7l)
BogoMIPS	: 57.60
Features	: half thumb fastmult vfp edsp neon vfpv3 tls vfpv4 idiva idivt vfpd32 lpae evtstrm 
CPU implementer	: 0x41
CPU architecture: 7
CPU variant	: 0x0
CPU part	: 0xc07
CPU revision	: 5

processor	: 2
model name	: ARMv7 Processor rev 5 (v7l)
BogoMIPS	: 57.60
Features	: half thumb fastmult vfp edsp neon vfpv3 tls vfpv4 idiva idivt vfpd32 lpae evtstrm 
CPU implementer	: 0x41
CPU architecture: 7
CPU variant	: 0x0
CPU part	: 0xc07
CPU revision	: 5

processor	: 3
model name	: ARMv7 Processor rev 5 (v7l)
BogoMIPS	: 57.60
Features	: half thumb fastmult vfp edsp neon vfpv3 tls vfpv4 idiva idivt vfpd32 lpae evtstrm 
CPU implementer	: 0x41
CPU architecture: 7
CPU variant	: 0x0
CPU part	: 0xc07
CPU revision	: 5

Busspeed

 #####################################################

   BusSpeed 32 Bit V1.1 Thu Feb  5 11:17:24 2015
 
    Reading Speed 4 Byte Words in MBytes/Second
  Memory  Inc32  Inc16   Inc8   Inc4   Inc2   Read
  KBytes  Words  Words  Words  Words  Words    All

      16    290    284    581    984   1044   1185
      32    133    106    121    121    225    426
      64     84     73     87     93    170    341
     128     53     51     48     62    109    249
     256     34     37     32     43     86    177
     512     31     32     31     42     84    173
    1024     31     34     32     45     84    183
    4096     32     32     32     43     87    190
   16384     32     34     34     41     83    176
   65536     31     32     33     44     83    176

        End of test Thu Feb  5 11:17:36 2015

SYSTEM INFORMATION

From File /proc/cpuinfo
processor	: 0
model name	: ARMv6-compatible processor rev 7 (v6l)
BogoMIPS	: 2.00
Features	: half thumb fastmult vfp edsp java tls 
CPU implementer	: 0x41
CPU architecture: 7
CPU variant	: 0x0
CPU part	: 0xb76
CPU revision	: 7

Hardware	: BCM2708
Revision	: 000f
Serial		: 0000000022401f90
 #####################################################

   BusSpeed 32 Bit V1.1 Tue Feb 10 12:51:46 2015
 
    Reading Speed 4 Byte Words in MBytes/Second
  Memory  Inc32  Inc16   Inc8   Inc4   Inc2   Read
  KBytes  Words  Words  Words  Words  Words    All

      16    511    533   1333   1777   1706   1750
      32   1023    984   1163   1422   1638   1706
      64    426    409    761   1092   1365   1365
     128    372    393    682   1137   1638   1300
     256    213    232    426    758   1191   1094
     512    148    146    292    546    910    730
    1024     78     85    171    335    662    440
    4096     68     76    146    305    629    322
   16384     67     74    149    290    645    335
   65536     69     74    148    296    592    353

        End of test Tue Feb 10 12:51:57 2015

SYSTEM INFORMATION

From File /proc/cpuinfo
processor	: 0
model name	: ARMv7 Processor rev 5 (v7l)
BogoMIPS	: 38.40
Features	: half thumb fastmult vfp edsp neon vfpv3 tls vfpv4 idiva idivt 
   vfpd32 lpae evtstrm 
CPU implementer	: 0x41
CPU architecture: 7
CPU variant	: 0x0
CPU part	: 0xc07
CPU revision	: 5

processor	: 1
model name	: ARMv7 Processor rev 5 (v7l)
BogoMIPS	: 38.40
Features	: half thumb fastmult vfp edsp neon vfpv3 tls vfpv4 idiva idivt 
   vfpd32 lpae evtstrm 
CPU implementer	: 0x41
CPU architecture: 7
CPU variant	: 0x0
CPU part	: 0xc07
CPU revision	: 5

processor	: 2
model name	: ARMv7 Processor rev 5 (v7l)
BogoMIPS	: 38.40
Features	: half thumb fastmult vfp edsp neon vfpv3 tls vfpv4 idiva idivt 
   vfpd32 lpae evtstrm 
CPU implementer	: 0x41
CPU architecture: 7
CPU variant	: 0x0
CPU part	: 0xc07
CPU revision	: 5

processor	: 3
model name	: ARMv7 Processor rev 5 (v7l)
BogoMIPS	: 38.40
Features	: half thumb fastmult vfp edsp neon vfpv3 tls vfpv4 idiva idivt 
   vfpd32 lpae evtstrm 
CPU implementer	: 0x41
CPU architecture: 7
CPU variant	: 0x0
CPU part	: 0xc07
CPU revision	: 5

Dhrystone

 #####################################################

 Dhrystone Benchmark 2.1 Opt 3 32 Bit, Thu Feb  5 11:13:07 2015

 Nanoseconds one Dhrystone run:       675.00
 Dhrystones per Second:              1481481
 VAX MIPS rating =                    843.19

 Numeric results were correct

 #####################################################
 #####################################################

 Dhrystone Benchmark 2.1 Opt 3 32 Bit, Tue Feb 10 12:52:43 2015

 Nanoseconds one Dhrystone run:       368.75
 Dhrystones per Second:              2711864
 VAX MIPS rating =                   1543.46

 Numeric results were correct

 #####################################################
SYSTEM INFORMATION

From File /proc/cpuinfo
processor	: 0
model name	: ARMv7 Processor rev 5 (v7l)
BogoMIPS	: 57.60
Features	: half thumb fastmult vfp edsp neon vfpv3 tls vfpv4 idiva idivt vfpd32 lpae evtstrm 
CPU implementer	: 0x41
CPU architecture: 7
CPU variant	: 0x0
CPU part	: 0xc07
CPU revision	: 5

processor	: 1
model name	: ARMv7 Processor rev 5 (v7l)
BogoMIPS	: 57.60
Features	: half thumb fastmult vfp edsp neon vfpv3 tls vfpv4 idiva idivt vfpd32 lpae evtstrm 
CPU implementer	: 0x41
CPU architecture: 7
CPU variant	: 0x0
CPU part	: 0xc07
CPU revision	: 5

processor	: 2
model name	: ARMv7 Processor rev 5 (v7l)
BogoMIPS	: 57.60
Features	: half thumb fastmult vfp edsp neon vfpv3 tls vfpv4 idiva idivt vfpd32 lpae evtstrm 
CPU implementer	: 0x41
CPU architecture: 7
CPU variant	: 0x0
CPU part	: 0xc07
CPU revision	: 5

processor	: 3
model name	: ARMv7 Processor rev 5 (v7l)
BogoMIPS	: 57.60
Features	: half thumb fastmult vfp edsp neon vfpv3 tls vfpv4 idiva idivt vfpd32 lpae evtstrm 
CPU implementer	: 0x41
CPU architecture: 7
CPU variant	: 0x0
CPU part	: 0xc07
CPU revision	: 5

Linpack

Livermore Loops

 #####################################################

 Livermore Loops Benchmark Opt 3 32 Bit via C/C++ Thu Feb  5 11:17:50 2015

 MFLOPS for 24 loops
   64.3   79.3  128.8  145.0   22.9   29.0  106.7  125.8   89.9   37.6   30.8   24.2
   21.9   19.2   60.6   58.8   80.6   62.3   73.9   46.6   30.0   22.4   69.0   29.4

 Overall Ratings
 Maximum Average Geomean Harmean Minimum
   148.3    64.5    55.0    46.8    19.2

 Numeric results were as expected

 ########################################################
 #####################################################

 Livermore Loops Benchmark Opt 3 32 Bit via C/C++ Tue Feb 10 12:52:47 2015

 MFLOPS for 24 loops
  113.9  129.1  221.3  203.4   84.5   91.3  195.8  246.4  155.2  136.9   74.2   63.6
   62.6   70.2  125.9  125.2  196.3  153.0  132.6  116.2   77.3   41.6  161.2   89.0

 Overall Ratings
 Maximum Average Geomean Harmean Minimum
   246.5   125.7   114.7   103.8    41.5

 Numeric results were as expected

 ########################################################
SYSTEM INFORMATION

From File /proc/cpuinfo
processor	: 0
model name	: ARMv7 Processor rev 5 (v7l)
BogoMIPS	: 57.60
Features	: half thumb fastmult vfp edsp neon vfpv3 tls vfpv4 idiva idivt vfpd32 lpae evtstrm 
CPU implementer	: 0x41
CPU architecture: 7
CPU variant	: 0x0
CPU part	: 0xc07
CPU revision	: 5

processor	: 1
model name	: ARMv7 Processor rev 5 (v7l)
BogoMIPS	: 57.60
Features	: half thumb fastmult vfp edsp neon vfpv3 tls vfpv4 idiva idivt vfpd32 lpae evtstrm 
CPU implementer	: 0x41
CPU architecture: 7
CPU variant	: 0x0
CPU part	: 0xc07
CPU revision	: 5

processor	: 2
model name	: ARMv7 Processor rev 5 (v7l)
BogoMIPS	: 57.60
Features	: half thumb fastmult vfp edsp neon vfpv3 tls vfpv4 idiva idivt vfpd32 lpae evtstrm 
CPU implementer	: 0x41
CPU architecture: 7
CPU variant	: 0x0
CPU part	: 0xc07
CPU revision	: 5

processor	: 3
model name	: ARMv7 Processor rev 5 (v7l)
BogoMIPS	: 57.60
Features	: half thumb fastmult vfp edsp neon vfpv3 tls vfpv4 idiva idivt vfpd32 lpae evtstrm 
CPU implementer	: 0x41
CPU architecture: 7
CPU variant	: 0x0
CPU part	: 0xc07
CPU revision	: 5

MemSpeed

 #####################################################

     Memory Reading Speed Test 32 Bit Version 4 by Roy Longbottom

               Start of test Thu Feb  5 11:19:32 2015

  Memory   x[m]=x[m]+s*y[m] Int+   x[m]=x[m]+y[m]         x[m]=y[m]
  KBytes    Dble   Sngl  Int32   Dble   Sngl  Int32   Dble   Sngl  Int32
    Used    MB/S   MB/S   MB/S   MB/S   MB/S   MB/S   MB/S   MB/S   MB/S

       8     568    602    853    639    731   1094   1122    465    653
      16     538    602    787    602    682   1023   1142    533    727
      32     301    269    319    292    269    353    984    511    571
      64     243    213    238    232    217    255    341    269    301
     128     182    167    182    176    165    189    284    243    243
     256     142    131    142    136    131    148    146    128    134
     512     140    131    142    136    131    148    121    113    119
    1024     138    129    140    136    131    146    121    108    113
    2048     140    129    140    136    131    146    128    111    119
    4096     140    129    142    136    131    146    124    111    116
    8192     140    131    140    136    131    146    122    111    117
 #####################################################

     Memory Reading Speed Test 32 Bit Version 4 by Roy Longbottom

               Start of test Tue Feb 10 12:54:25 2015

  Memory   x[m]=x[m]+s*y[m] Int+   x[m]=x[m]+y[m]         x[m]=y[m]
  KBytes    Dble   Sngl  Int32   Dble   Sngl  Int32   Dble   Sngl  Int32
    Used    MB/S   MB/S   MB/S   MB/S   MB/S   MB/S   MB/S   MB/S   MB/S

       8    1024   1333   1142   2133   1406   1523   2666   1666   1523
      16    1023   1306   1185   2133   1406   1523   2461   1641   1523
      32    1023   1185   1094   1777   1333   1333   1939   1454   1422
      64     930   1094   1067   1662   1142   1230   1422   1333   1333
     128     930   1067    985   1524   1094   1142   1142   1333   1333
     256     930   1016    986   1525   1094   1186   1142   1454   1334
     512     538    639    568    682    682    639    986    728    728
    1024     393    512    393    465    512    445    891    496    537
    2048     310    445    320    353    445    341    895    460    496
    4096     310    445    310    353    445    330    904    511    465
    8192     297    427    307    338    446    338    906    491    491

SYSTEM INFORMATION

From File /proc/cpuinfo
processor	: 0
model name	: ARMv7 Processor rev 5 (v7l)
BogoMIPS	: 57.60
Features	: half thumb fastmult vfp edsp neon vfpv3 tls vfpv4 idiva idivt vfpd32 lpae evtstrm 
CPU implementer	: 0x41
CPU architecture: 7
CPU variant	: 0x0
CPU part	: 0xc07
CPU revision	: 5

processor	: 1
model name	: ARMv7 Processor rev 5 (v7l)
BogoMIPS	: 57.60
Features	: half thumb fastmult vfp edsp neon vfpv3 tls vfpv4 idiva idivt vfpd32 lpae evtstrm 
CPU implementer	: 0x41
CPU architecture: 7
CPU variant	: 0x0
CPU part	: 0xc07
CPU revision	: 5

processor	: 2
model name	: ARMv7 Processor rev 5 (v7l)
BogoMIPS	: 57.60
Features	: half thumb fastmult vfp edsp neon vfpv3 tls vfpv4 idiva idivt vfpd32 lpae evtstrm 
CPU implementer	: 0x41
CPU architecture: 7
CPU variant	: 0x0
CPU part	: 0xc07
CPU revision	: 5

processor	: 3
model name	: ARMv7 Processor rev 5 (v7l)
BogoMIPS	: 57.60
Features	: half thumb fastmult vfp edsp neon vfpv3 tls vfpv4 idiva idivt vfpd32 lpae evtstrm 
CPU implementer	: 0x41
CPU architecture: 7
CPU variant	: 0x0
CPU part	: 0xc07
CPU revision	: 5

Whetstone

##############################################

Whetstone Single Precision C Benchmark  Opt 3 32 Bit, Thu Feb  5 11:12:19 2015


Loop content                   Result              MFLOPS      MOPS   Seconds

N1 floating point      -1.12475013732910156        97.087               0.053
N2 floating point      -1.12274742126464844       100.053               0.360
N3 if then else         1.00000000000000000                 693.450     0.040
N4 fixed point         12.00000000000000000                 422.100     0.200
N5 sin,cos etc.         0.49911010265350342                   5.822     3.830
N6 floating point       0.99999982118606567        85.035               1.700
N7 assignments          3.00000000000000000                 550.293     0.090
N8 exp,sqrt etc.        0.75110864639282227                   2.694     3.700

MWIPS                                             268.726               9.973
##############################################

Whetstone Single Precision C Benchmark  Opt 3 32 Bit, Tue Feb 10 12:57:53 2015


Loop content                   Result              MFLOPS      MOPS   Seconds

N1 floating point      -1.12475013732910156       247.727               0.041
N2 floating point      -1.12274742126464844       263.324               0.270
N3 if then else         1.00000000000000000                1368.787     0.040
N4 fixed point         12.00000000000000000                1110.900     0.150
N5 sin,cos etc.         0.49911010265350342                  10.259     4.290
N6 floating point       0.99999982118606567       224.679               1.270
N7 assignments          3.00000000000000000                 888.720     0.110
N8 exp,sqrt etc.        0.75110864639282227                   5.165     3.810

MWIPS                                             530.007               9.981
SYSTEM INFORMATION

From File /proc/cpuinfo
processor	: 0
model name	: ARMv7 Processor rev 5 (v7l)
BogoMIPS	: 38.40
Features	: half thumb fastmult vfp edsp neon vfpv3 tls vfpv4 idiva idivt vfpd32 lpae evtstrm 
CPU implementer	: 0x41
CPU architecture: 7
CPU variant	: 0x0
CPU part	: 0xc07
CPU revision	: 5

processor	: 1
model name	: ARMv7 Processor rev 5 (v7l)
BogoMIPS	: 38.40
Features	: half thumb fastmult vfp edsp neon vfpv3 tls vfpv4 idiva idivt vfpd32 lpae evtstrm 
CPU implementer	: 0x41
CPU architecture: 7
CPU variant	: 0x0
CPU part	: 0xc07
CPU revision	: 5

processor	: 2
model name	: ARMv7 Processor rev 5 (v7l)
BogoMIPS	: 38.40
Features	: half thumb fastmult vfp edsp neon vfpv3 tls vfpv4 idiva idivt vfpd32 lpae evtstrm 
CPU implementer	: 0x41
CPU architecture: 7
CPU variant	: 0x0
CPU part	: 0xc07
CPU revision	: 5

processor	: 3
model name	: ARMv7 Processor rev 5 (v7l)
BogoMIPS	: 38.40
Features	: half thumb fastmult vfp edsp neon vfpv3 tls vfpv4 idiva idivt vfpd32 lpae evtstrm 
CPU implementer	: 0x41
CPU architecture: 7
CPU variant	: 0x0
CPU part	: 0xc07
CPU revision	: 5

I have ommited system information for tests after the first one for the old model, but not for Model 2. The first difference you can find is the four cores in model B, with an A7 architecture. In the original RPi, the cpuinfo declares 2 BogoMIPS, while in the new one each one is displayed with 57.60 BogoMIPS and sometimes less, 38.40. It has to be due to the frequency, that can vary between 600 and 900MHz. Maybe I shoud repeat the tests forcing 900MHz to optimize for performance. That’s why I left system information, so bogomips can be found for each test.
As can be seen, results are much better for the new model (2-3 times faster, depending on the test), and must be taken into account that the code has been compiled for A6 architecture, and that the tests are designed for one core, so the difference has to be due to the frequency, the new architecture and the improved bus and memory speed (3-4 times faster).

Please leave any comment if you have any additional data or interpretation. Further study and analysis of results are needed, of course.

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